CÓMO ELIJO LAS PLANTAS PARA MI JARDÍN
Cuando la selección de la especie de planta y animal para nuestro Permaculture ajardina un buen lugar para comenzar está mirando patrones locales del clima y de la vegetación para dirigir nuestro procedimiento de toma de decisión.
Chile es un paisaje diverso y complejo, del más seco del mundo, a algunos de los lugares más fríos y más mojados. Cualquier región de Chile usted vive adentro, usted encontrará que un sistema de los factores climáticos específicos que proporcionan las oportunidades y las limitaciones en qué planta producirá.
We can generally divide Chile into ten broad Climatic Zones as defined by the Koppen Classification System. Koppen combines average annual and monthly temperature and precipitation with the distribution of plant communities to define broad climate types. Koppen said that native vegetation is the ´´best expression of climate´´.
This is in part explains why we see; Agriculture around small oases with traditional llama and alpaca herding in Atacama, Pisco and papayas, olives and avocados in Norte Chico, why Zona Central is Chile's, agricultural and cultural heartland with the main wine regions, while in Zona Sur we grow wheat, cattle, silviculture and salmon, and in Zona Austral sheepherding fish and trees. It is also why it is very difficult to grow bananas, or even Avocados here in El Manzano, and why Olives and Tagasaste grow well.
These broad systems are not concrete and stationary, but in constant flux; they are dynamic, with diffuse boundaries. Although we can charachterise and classify, drawing lines around life in this way, natural systems are far more complex. Species adapt to conditions, long term climate fluctuates in cycles, and of course we can modify the limiting effects of climate, like frost and wind, by carefull planning and design.
Understding this allows us to do two things;
Often the plant selection process is about trial and error, testing species on a small safe scale, before making a large investment in trees. Making good decisions requires lots of careful observation, thinking and planning, looking around the region for successful planting strategies and land management practices that are working and resilient. It means learning from experience, your own, and the experience of other people. We don’t have to reinvent the wheel.
The three main climate and vegetation types we are concerned with here in Chile are;
Each of these broad climate areas of Chile are also affected by winds, geology and soil, water and stream flow, by human factors and many other effects that we have to take into account. By looking to these factors defined above, and building up an understanding of the area we live in, we can become masters in the design of productive landscapes that yield an abundance for local people and natural systems.
DESIGN CAPACITY IN CHILE
We have realised here in El Manzano that Plant knowledge is a key skill that many in the Permcaulture community lack. For us this is a pressing information need especially for Permaculture Diploma students looking for quality information to guide their design processes. We also realise that many people in the wider networks in Chile are frustrated about the lack of access to free Permaculture information. I will attempt to kill two birds with one stone, as they say, in Permaculture circles - stack functions.
I will publish a series of guides here on our site to asist Permaculture Designers in Chile and to begin to fill our purpose of providing free education. I bear in mind the idea that we are not trying to mindlessly copy examples, or appy linear strategies, but rather trying to develop our capacity in the use of Design Principles, or thinking tools that lead us in the right direction. If we consciously follow through with the design process, learning as we go, using new information to guide us, we are likely to emerge with good workable solutions. We will look at each Climatic zone in turn, exploring the types of plants and strategies that we can use in specific cases.
The first will be Mediterranean.
In the meantime here is a video of Geoff Lawton in a 300 year old Food Forest.